Pyelonephritis (Interstitial nephritis, inflammation of the kidneys) is a bacterial infection of the kidneys and urinary tract. It is a widespread disease, the incidence being the highest among all kidney diseases (80%), and the second most of all infections after respiratory infections. Etiology (causes). It is caused by microbes called bacteria, the most common cause of pyelonephritis is the bacterium Escherichia coli. It is rare to find Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Enterococ, Stafilococ, Chlamidia and others. In principle, the urine has antibacterial properties, as well as the lining of the urinary tract, but in the presence of a predisposition to infection occurs such as typically the path of infection is ascending (bottom-up by first infect the urethra, the urethra, then the bladder, the ureter, Until kidney and renal pelvis infection is infected). The other possibility - the infectious agent to reach the kidneys by blood - is very rare. The predisposing factors for the occurrence of pyelonephritis are: 1. Female sex (due to the shorter urethra which is the first barrier to the infection). 2.Smushteniya in the normal drainage of urine caused by other renal zabolyavaniya- kidney stone disease, vesicoureteral reflux (return of urine from the bladder into the ureter, prostate hyperplasia (enlarged prostate gland in men), stricture (narrowing) of the urinary tract. 3. Increased urine concentration with reduced fluid intake or significant water loss of the body, as in diluted urine, bacteria are experiencing significant difficulties due to a reduction in osmotic urine pressure resulting in the passage of water inside the bacterial cell which at one point Inflates as a result of its increased volume, and can even figuratively burst, even if it is from the L-forms (protoplasts) - see bacterial cells resistant to antibiotic treatment and responsible for maintaining a chronic infection in the kidneys It is not accidental that pyelonephritis becomes more frequent during the summer months when the body loses many fluids due to perspiration and therefore produces less and more concentrated urine. 4. Other Predisposing Factors - Pregnancy and Disease Diabetes Mellitus, Chronic Constipation, Sexual Trauma, etc. Classification. The pyelonephrites are divided according to the way of: 1.Ost-when the period of illness is up to 3 months. 2. Chronic-disease lasts more than 3 months-years, and most often a whole life with periodic exacerbations as always is the same cause. They can also be recurrent - alternating acute illnesses as the cause is different each time. In acute pyelonephritis typically onset is acute at high temperature to 39-40 degrees, chills, fatigue and loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, back pain bilateral amplification of pain in soft shot with umruk in the lumbar region (this test is called Sukusio renalis) , stinging and burning during urination, frequent urination, cloudy or dark urine, sweating, pain in the limbs and back and unpleasant pungent smell of urinata.Netipichen symptom that I have met very rarely a rash all over the body that is not affected by allergy ekarstva but disappears in the process of treatment of pyelonephritis spontaneously. A characteristic feature of acute pyelonephritis in older patients is the more oily (less complained) course of lower fever, almost no pain, like influenza, and more difficult and prolonged treatment. In children, in nursing and infancy is conducted with a slight fever, nenaddavane weight, vomiting, loose stools, fatigue, abdominal pain and anxiety, and in newborns these symptoms can be added, weight reduction, agitation, convulsions, sivkavost And pale, persistent yellow skin color after birth for more than 20 days, swelling of the abdomen and fountain. For larger children above four years of age have a low back pain and abdomen, frequent urination, stinging and burning on urination, fever, constipation or diarrhea stools, anorexia, headache, which in some cases can mimic meningitis (inflammation of the meninges) and Nocturnal infiltration after the child has stopped drinking before.